Macintosh Operating System Deployment (v2.1)

Version 9

    Verified Product Versions

    LANDESK Management Suite 9.5

    Mac OSD

    For Mac Agents 8.8 - 9.0

     

    For Mac OSD with LDMS 9.5 and later please see DOC-30245

     

    The following contains an outline of the recommended steps and procedures an organization should follow to use Operating System Deployment for Mac with their managed Macintosh clients:

    1. Enabling an Xserve for use with Operating System Deployment for Mac.
    2. Creating a LANDesk OSD image (preferred) or a NetBoot Image, and establishing the image on an Xserve to boot a managed Macintosh client into a temporary environment.
    3. Creating a Mac OS X workstation image, and/or a Windows workstation image, to copy to a managed Macintosh client.
    4. Saving a workstation image on an Xserve, or an open HTTP share, for distribution to a managed Macintosh client.
    5. Deploying an imaging task using scheduled tasks, targeted at a managed Macintosh client.

     

    This information has been written under the following assumptions:

    • The reader has access to LANDesk Management Suite 8.8 SP2 or later.
    • The reader has access to Operating System Deployment for Mac files updated after 8.8 SP2 (September 2008).
    • The reader has access to Macintosh devices managed with the LANDesk Agent for Mac.
    • The reader has access to an Xserve with Mac OS X Server 10.4.x (Tiger) or 10.5.x (Leopard).
    • The reader has an understanding of how software distribution tasks are created and scheduled.
    • The reader intends to use Operating System Deployment for Mac to manage the first partition on a Macintosh device running Mac OS X, and/or the Windows partition on a Macintosh device running Boot Camp.
    • If re-imaging the Windows partition on managed Macintosh devices, the reader has access to, and an understanding of, Boot Camp from Apple.

     

    To successfully image Macintosh devices the steps in the following sections will need to be completed.

     

    Enabling a Xserve for Mac OSD (show me)

    To use Operating System Deployment with the LANDesk Agent for Mac, an Xserve must be utilized as an intermediary between a LANDesk Management Suite core and managed Macintosh devices. The following services must be running on an Xserve to enable it for use with Operating System Deployment for Mac.

    In addition to the aforementioned services a set of LANDesk files and settings must be installed on the Xserve. To install these files, execute the LANDesk Management System Xserve Installer on the Xserve. The installer is saved in a .zip file located on a LANDesk Management Suite core at the following location:

        ..\LANDesk\ManagementSuite\Install\Mac\MacOSDXserve.pkg.zip

     

    Creating a LANDesk OSD Image (show me)

    LANDesk OSD images are used to reboot Macintosh devices with an environment suitable for re-imaging. LANDesk OSD images function with both devices on the same subnet, as well as different subnets, as the Xserve. This section includes instructions on how to create and establish LANDesk OSD images using the following tools:

    • A Macintosh device, to create the LANDesk OSD image on.
    • A Mac OS X 10.4.x (Tiger) or 10.5.x (Leopard) DVD, to install the operating system.

      (Note: LANDesk OSD Images created with Leopard will be set as universal images, meaning they can be used to boot both Intel and PowerPC based Macs. LANDesk OSD Images created with Tiger are platform specific: Use an  Intel-based Macintosh to create LANDesk OSD images for other Intel-based Macs, and a PowerPC-based Macintosh for other PowerPC-based Macs.

    • The LANDesk OSD Utility, an application provided by LANDesk for creating images to be used with Operating System Deployment for Mac.

    Complete the following steps to create a LANDesk OSD image using a Macintosh device.

    1. Restart a Macintosh device using a Mac OS X 10.4.x (Tiger) or 10.5.x (Leopard) DVD.
    2. Install Mac OS X on the Macintosh device. This installation will be used to capture the LANDesk OSD image.

      Warning: Installing Mac OS X on a hard drive already in use will cause all data on the drive to be lost.

    3. Install Mac OS X updates using Software Update.
    4. Copy the LANDesk OSD Utility to the Macintosh device. The utility is saved in a .zip file located on a LANDesk Management Suite core at the following location:

      ..\LANDesk\ManagementSuite\Install\Mac\LANDeskMacOSDUtility.zip

    5. Extract LANDesk OSD Utility.app from LANDeskOSDMacUtility.zip.
    6. Execute LANDesk OSD Utility.app.
    7. Enter information in the following fields:

      • Name: A name for the LANDesk OSD Image.
      • Save To: A location to save the LANDesk OSD Image.

        Note: Do not use the following characters in the Name or Save To fields: $ (dollar sign) and ` (back tick). Even if properly escaped these characters will cause failures.

      • ID: An identification number for the LANDesk OSD image. This number must be unique among all of the Index numbers used with the NetBoot service on the Xserve that hosts the LANDesk OSD Image.

    8. Click Build. The application will create a LANDesk OSD image and save it in the directory specified in the Save To field. This may take a while.

      Note: Included in a LANDesk OSD image is a graphic that is displayed automatically when the LANDesk OSD image is loaded. This graphic will identify the device as being re-imaged, and indicates that it should not be touched in any way.

    9. Copy the LANDesk OSD image to the /Library/NetBoot/NetBootSP0/ directory on the Xserve.

     

    Enabling the LANDesk OSD Image on the Xserve (show me)

    With the LANDesk OSD image copied to the Xserve, complete the following steps to establish the LANDesk OSD image on the Xserve.

    1. Launch Server Admin on the Xserve.
    2. Select the NetBoot tab.
    3. Select the Settings tab at the bottom of the dialog.
    4. Select the Images tab near the top of the dialog.
    5. From the Images dialog select Default and Enable for the LANDesk OSD image, then click the Save button.

      Note: At least one LANDesk OSD image for each hardware platform (Intel and PowerPC) must be marked as Default. All LANDesk OSD images must be marked as enabled for use with Operating System Deployment.

    6. Verify that the green icon, indicating that the NetBoot service is running without error, is displayed next to the word NetBoot under Computers & Services on the Overview tab. If the green icon is not displayed, start (or restart) the NetBoot service.

      Note: During the use of the NetBoot service this icon may be displayed as a grey icon. This is a known defect in Server Admin, and is not a defect with Operating System Deployment for Mac.

     

    Creating an Image to Deploy

    Workstation images are used to install the desired operating system and applications on a targeted Macintosh device. This section includes instructions on how to create and save workstation images using the following tools:

    • A Macintosh device, to create the workstation image on.

      Note: Workstation images created with Leopard can be used as universal images, meaning they can be installed on both Intel and PowerPC based Macs. Workstation Images created with Tiger are platform-specific: Use an Intel-based Macintosh to create workstation images for other Intel-based Macs, and a PowerPC-based Macintosh to create workstation images for other PowerPC-based Mac.)

    • A Mac OS X 10.4.x (Tiger) or 10.5.x (Leopard) DVD, to install the operating system.
    • Disk Utility, an application included with Mac OS X 10.4.x (Tiger) and 10.5.x (Leopard).

     

    Creating a Mac Image (show me)

    Complete the following steps to create a workstation image of Mac OS X using a Macintosh device.

    1. Restart a Macintosh device using a Mac OS X 10.4.x (Tiger) or 10.5.x (Leopard) DVD.
    2. Repartition the device to include two partitions (A and B). This will allow for one partition to be used to create an image and the other partition for a place to store the image.

      Note: Create the partition (Partition A) to be as small as possible, with enough space to install the operating system and any required applications. Small images can be installed on large partitions, but not vice versa.

      Warning: Repartitioning a hard drive will cause all data on the drive to be lost.

    3. Install Mac OS X on Partition A. This partition will be used to create the workstation image.
    4. Install Mac OS X updates using Software Update.
    5. Create any required user accounts, preference settings, etc.
    6. Install the LANDesk Agent for Mac.
    7. Install any required applications and configure as required.
    8. Remove any applications that are not required, to reduce the size of the image.
    9. Restart a Macintosh device using a Mac OS X 10.4.x (Tiger) or 10.5.x (Leopard) DVD.
    10. Launch Disk Utility.
    11. Select the New Image button.
    12. Set Save As to the name of the image.
    13. Set the save location of the image as Partition B.
    14. Set Image Format to Compressed and Encryption to None.
    15. Select the Create button to save the workstation image.
    16. Once the Image is created reboot to Partition A.
    17. When the OS is loaded run the following command against the workstation image:

      asr –imagescan imagename.dmg

    18. Wait for Block Checksum to execute.
    19. Decide if the image will be hosted on the Xserve or a HTTP share and continue with the steps in that section.

     

    Saving the Mac Image to the Xserve (show me)

    1. Copy the workstation image to the \Users\Shared\LANDesk\Images\ directory on the Xserve.
    2. Verify that read privileges are enabled for the workstation image on the Xserve. To reestablish the proper access rights for a workstation image file, execute the following command against the file (filename.dmg represents the workstation image filename):

      chmod ago+r filename.dmg

     

    Saving the Mac Image to a HTTP share (show me)

     

    Note: When distributing workstation images from an open HTTP share, the .dmg file containing the workstation image will be transmitted directly from the share to the device being re-imaged.

    1. Copy the workstation image to an open HTTP share.
    2. Verify that read privileges are enabled for the workstation image on the HTTP share. To reestablish the proper access rights for a workstation image file, execute the following command against the file (filename.dmg represents the workstation image filename):

      chmod ago+r filename.dmg

     

    Creating a Windows Image (show me)

     

    Complete the following steps to create a workstation image of Windows XP or Windows Vista using a Macintosh device.

    1. Restart a Macintosh device using a Mac OS X 10.5.x (Leopard) DVD.
    2. Repartition the device to include one partition.

      Warning: Repartitioning a hard drive will cause all data on the drive to be lost.

    3. Install Mac OS X on the partition.
    4. Install Mac OS X updates using Software Update.
    5. Run Boot Camp Assistant (/Applications/Utilities)

      Note: Information on Boot Camp including the Installation Guide can be found at the Apple Support Boot Camp web page.

      Note: Operating System Deployment for Mac only functions with matching partition maps. When creating the Windows partition while installing Boot Camp, verify that this partition matches in size the partitions you intend to re-image.

    6. Install Windows on the second partition, formatting the drive as NTFS.

      Note: Operating System Deployment for Mac only supports partitions formatted as NTFS. FAT32 is not supported.

    7. Install all Windows drivers.
    8. Install Windows updates using Windows Update.
    9. Create any required user accounts, preference settings, etc.
    10. Install any required applications and configure as required.
    11. Remove any applications that are not required, to reduce the size of the image.
    12. Currently Windows images can only be deployed if they are hosted on the Xserve. Continue with the steps in the Saving the Windows Image to the Xserve section.

     

    Saving the Windows Image to the Xserve (show me)

    With the workstation image set up on the Windows partition, reboot the Macintosh device to the Mac OS X partition and complete the following steps to save the Windows workstation image.

    Note: A Windows workstation image cannot be distributed from a HTTP share.

    1. In Terminal, unmount the Windows XP partition using the following command:

      diskutil unmount /dev/disk0s3

    2. Copy NTFSClone from /Users/Shared/LANDesk/Utilities/ on the Xserve to any location on the OS X partition.

      Note: For more information about NTFSClone, see linux-ntfs.org

    3. To create a copy of the Windows partition using Terminal, go to the location NTFSClone was copied to and run the following command (filename.zip represents the name of the Windows image file):

      sudo ./ntfsclone –-save-image –f –o - /dev/disk0s3 | gzip –c > filename.zip

      Warning: Ignore the following warning if it is displayed at the end of the operation: ERROR(45): fsync: Operation not supported

    4. Copy the file created in the previous step to the /Users/Shared/LANDesk/Images/ directory on the Xserve.
    5. Verify that read privileges are enabled for the workstation image on the Xserve. To reestablish the proper access rights for a workstation image file, execute the following command against the file (filename.zip represents the workstation image filename):

      chmod ago+r filename.zip

     

    Saving the Windows Image to a HTTP share

    Currently Windows images can only be deployed if they are hosted on the Xserve. Continue with the steps in the Saving the Windows Image to the Xserve section.

     

    Deploying the Mac Image (show me)

    Complete the following steps to deploy a Mac OS X workstation image.

    1. Create a Distribution Package with the following attributes:

      • On the General window, set the Package Location field to the location of the Mac.osd file.

        Example: http://coreServerName/ldlogon/mac/mac.osd

      • On the Install/Uninstall window, set the Command Line field as follows (this is an example only; see the syntax explanation below):

        -m ImageName.dmg –a 192.168.1.1 –i LANDeskOSDImage -f LANDeskOSDImage.nbi [-d]

        Syntax:

        -m ImageName.dmg The name of the Mac OS X workstation image saved in /Users/Shared/LANDesk/Images/ on the Xserve. If you are distributing the Mac OS X workstation image from an open HTTP share, enter http://server/share/ImageName.dmg.

        -a 192.168.1.1 The IP Address of the Xserve with the netboot image.

        -i LANDeskOSDImage The name of the LANDesk OSD image on the Xserve.

        -f LANDeskOSDImage.nbi The name of the LANDesk OSD image file on the Xserve.

        -d Use this switch to save information logged on the Xserve during re-imaging. This switch is optional.

    2. Create a software distribution task with the previously created distribution package and a Push delivery method.
    3. Target the previously created software distribution task with the Macintosh devices from inventory that are to be re-imaged.
    4. Schedule the software distribution task.

    Once the software distribution task is executed, the targeted Macintosh devices will be rebooted using the LANDesk OSD image on the Xserve and re-imaged with the Mac OS X workstation image, as defined in the distribution package.

     

    Deploying the Windows Image (show me)

    Complete the following steps to deploy a Windows workstation image.

    1. Create a Distribution Package with the following attributes:

      • On the General window, set the Package Location field to the location of the Mac.osd file.

        Example: http://server/share/mac.osd

      • On the Install/Uninstall window, set the Command Line field as follows (this is an example only; see the syntax explanation below):

        –w ImageName.zip –a 192.168.1.1 –i LANDeskOSDImage -f LANDeskOSDImage.nbi [-d]

        Syntax:

        -w ImageName.zip The name of the Windows workstation image saved in /Users/Shared/LANDesk/Images/ on the Xserve.

        -a 192.168.1.1 The IP Address of the Xserve with the netboot image.

        -i LANDeskOSDImage The name of the LANDesk OSD image on the Xserve.

        -f LANDeskOSDImage.nbi The name of the LANDesk OSD image file on the Xserve.

        -d Use this switch to save information logged on the Xserve during re-imaging. This switch is optional.

    2. Create a software distribution task with the previously created distribution package and a Push delivery method.
    3. Target the previously created software distribution task with the Macintosh devices from inventory that are to be re-imaged.
    4. Schedule the software distribution task.

    Once the software distribution task is executed, the targeted Macintosh devices will be rebooted using the LANDesk OSD image on the Xserve and reimaged with the Windows workstation image, as defined in the distribution package.

    Once reimaging is complete, the device will be rebooted to the Mac OS X partition. If needed, use Startup Drive in System Preferences to change the default boot partition.

     

    Deploying the Mac and Windows Image to the Same Device (show me)

    Complete the following steps to deploy a Mac OS X workstation image.

    1. Create a Distribution Package with the following attributes:

      • On the General window, set the Package Location field to the location of the Mac.osd file.

        Example: http://server/share/mac.osd

      • On the Install/Uninstall window, set the Command Line field as follows (this is an example only; see the syntax explanation below):

        -m ImageName.dmg –w ImageName.zip –a 192.168.1.1 –i LANDeskOSDImage -f LANDeskOSDImage.nbi [-d]

        Syntax:

        -m ImageName.dmg The name of the Mac OS X workstation image saved in /Users/Shared/LANDesk/Images/ on the Xserve.

        -w ImageName.zip The name of the Windows workstation image saved in /Users/Shared/LANDesk/Images/ on the Xserve.

        -a 192.168.1.1 The IP Address of the Xserve.

        -i LANDeskOSDImage The name of the LANDesk OSD image on the Xserve.

        -f LANDeskOSDImage.nbi The name of the LANDesk OSD image file on the Xserve.

        -d Use this switch to save information logged on the Xserve during re-imaging. This switch is optional.

    2. Create a software distribution task with the previously created distribution package and a Push delivery method.
    3. Target the previously created software distribution task with the Macintosh devices from inventory that are to be re-imaged.
    4. Schedule the software distribution task.

    Once the software distribution task is executed, the targeted Macintosh devices will be rebooted using the LANDesk OSD image on the Xserve and reimaged with both the Mac OS X and Windows workstation images, as defined in the distribution package.

    Once re-imaging is complete, the device will be rebooted to the Mac OS X partition. If needed, use Startup Drive in System Preferences to change the default boot partition.

     

    Troubleshooting

    Device status goes to “Done” prior to reboot

    For an Operating System Deployment for Mac task in the scheduled tasks list, device status will go to “Done”, and then display “Initiating Operating System Deployment”, prior to the device rebooting. The temporary device status of “Done” indicates that the Mac.osd file has been received by the client successfully. Device status will return to “Active” when the device reboots using the targeted LANDesk OSD or NetBoot image, and will remain “Active” until the device reboots to the local workstation after reimaging has completed.

    Device is not rebooted after an error

    If an error occurs that prevents a device targeted with an Operating System Deployment for Mac task from reimaging after the device has been rebooted for imaging, that device will remain booted to the LANDesk OSD image or NetBoot image. If this happens, determine the cause of the failure (review the LANDesk.log file to find the cause), then reboot the device back to the local workstation. Correct the root cause of the failure and then start the imaging process again for that device.

    Partition is erased even if workstation image is too large

    If a workstation image is too large to be copied to the targeted partition, the partition will still be erased and the targeted device will remain booted to the LANDesk OSD image or NetBoot image.

    Device status does not go to “Done” after successful imaging

    For an Operating System Deployment for Mac task in the scheduled tasks list, device status may not go to “Done” after successful imaging of a targeted device. Rebooting the targeted device may resolve this issue, causing a proper task status of “Done” to be displayed.

    Resetting the Profiles directory

     

    If a Macintosh device is restarted using Operating System Deployment, and the device reboots without reimaging, delete the directory under the Profiles directory (/Users/Shared/LANDesk/Profiles/) on the Xserve for the given device. Directories under the Profiles directory are listed by Media Access Code (MAC) Address.

    Resetting after a shadow drive error

    If a Macintosh device is started using a LANDesk OSD image and/or NetBoot image multiple times within a finite period of time, it may suffer a shadow drive error. This error is visible when, after resetting a Macintosh device and the Xserve is discovered, the Macintosh startup screen is displayed, the progress bar begins to increment as if to indicate completion, then the device reboots unexpectedly.

    If this error is observed on a Macintosh device, either of the following may resolve the problem:

    1. Reset PRAM on the Macintosh device by pressing Command-Option-P-R during power up.
    2. Delete the contents of the /Library/NetBoot/NetBootClients0/ directory on the Xserve.

    Creating a master workstation image

    When determining how best to use Operating System Deployment for Mac in an environment, creating a master workstation image may be deemed to be a more desirable alternative than maintaining individual workstation images for each model of managed Macintosh device.

    When creating master workstation images, use a Macintosh device that is the newest device, with the most features, in the environment that Operating System Deployment will be utilized in. This will allow for the image to contain a greater range of drivers for potential use, based on the Macintosh device the image is deployed to.

    Creating smaller workstation images

    When creating workstation images in Disk Utility, the Disk Image from Folder option can be used to create .DMG files that are smaller in size than images that are created by a sector-by-sector copy.

    To use this feature, in Disk Utility select File | New | Disk Image from Folder, then select the drive to be copied.