SQL Server Login Issue With Default Database

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    Even with a good known 'sa' password, login errors occur when trying to sign into SSMS or during GoldMine Installation.




    Every once in a while you may run into an issue where a user cannot  login to SQL Server, because the logins default database may not be  available.  This could be for several reason such as that database was  dropped, the database may be corrupt, the database is offline, the user  no longer has access to the database or even because the database was  renamed.  When this happens the user will see an error message like the  following on SQL Server 2005 and get a 4064 error.

     SQL Server 2005 and a 4064 error

    Or this error message for SQL Server 2008 and get a 18456 error.

    SQL Server 2008 and a 18456 error

    Or if you are using a command line tool, you may see a text error  like this: "Error: 18456, Severity: 14, State: 40. Login failed for user  'sqldbpool'. Reason: Failed to open the database specified in the login  properties. [CLIENT:]".
    This issue may not come up that often, but if it does here is a simple fix.  The user can connect to another database, such as the master and then the default database can be changed.

    Using SQL Server Management Studio

    Step 1: Open SSMS and click on "File" and then "Connect Object Explorer..."

     Open SSMS and click on "File"

    Step 2: Enter the server name, select the authentication mode,  in this case I am using SQL Server Authentication where I also need to  enter a login and password. Then click on the "Options" button

    SQL Server Authentication

    Step 3: On the "Connection Properties" tab, type a  different database name into the "Connect to database" drop down. You  should be able to just connect to the master database, since all users  have access to that database by default or you enter another database  that you know the user has access to.  Here is what this looks like for  both SQL Server 2005 and SQL Server 2008.

    "Connection Properties" tab what this looks like for both SQL Server 2005 and SQL Server 2008

    Step 4: At this point you can work with SQL Server  as normal.  If you want to change the default database you can open a  query window and execute the below query to change the default database  for the login Note: sp_defaultdb will be removed from the future version  of SQL Server so you will need to use the ALTER command.  Be careful  with the database you select.  You can pick any database you want as the  default database, but if the user does not have access to the database  they will get the same error.
    EXEC sp_defaultdb 'sqldbpool', 'master' OR ALTER LOGIN sqldbpool with DEFAULT_DATABASE = master

    Using SQL CMD

    You can use SQLCMD or OSQL to login to SQL Server. You can use the -d  switch, as shown below, to specify the database name.  In this example I  am connecting to the msdb database.  Once you are connected you can do  the same as Step 4 above to change the default database.

    use SQLCMD or OSQL to login to SQL Server

    List Default Database for Logins 

    To get a list of all logins and their default databases you can use  this query to retrieve the login, its default database and database  status information to see whether the database is online or not.
    select name,         loginname,         dbname as DefaultDB,         DATABASEPROPERTYEX(dbname, 'Status') as DBStatus from sys.syslogins order by DBstatus
    Next Steps
    • Develop a script to fix logins with a default database issue
    • Use the query above to list all of your logins and their default databases to see if there are any potential issues
    • Also, make sure you check that the user login has access to a database if you change their default database.