Unfortunately you can't look at the groups a user is a member of either through a standard or a calculation condition. You could however check against the CurrentGroup in a standard condition if that would work?
I've considered the challenge too of how to do a "is one of my groups" in queries. What I thought of that could work (though havent tried) is to have an string attribute on tps_user that set either via a scheduled calculation or perhaps more performantly an insert/update trigger on tps_user_group such that whenever the group membership is changed then a string field in format "group1;group2;group3" is updated. Then in query you could use "Contains" in criteria to find these?
A bodge I know but until the enhancement request comes to allow this then this feature is sorely missed.