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Function keys in barcodes can be encoded with an ESC character followed by a capital letter. For example, a barcode with an ESC character followed by the twelfth letter "L" will be interpreted as F12. The "Scan Escape Code" character that is normally the ESC character can be changed to another character in the Emulation Parameters. Changing the "Scan Escape Code" to a percent character would mean that the barcode could be encoded as "%L".
Below is more information from some older documentation on the subject.
Alternatively, a script should be able to capture barcodes and convert them to a keypress.