Dug around some more and found a similar issue:
It must be the same thing, which is an issue with IIS and how HTTP.sys handles HTTP requests. We will try the registry value AllowRestrictedChars from this MS KB to see if it resolves the issue: Http.sys registry settings for Windows
We ran into this issue with applications that bring C++ installers with them. In this case you can't rename the files or the applications setup files won't know where to find them.
Our work-around was to zip the files on the network share, deploy the zip file to the client, unzip the file and run the installer. It may add some time to the installer but it does work.