... yes - that's why you can do a filter of "AND NOT ..." ... as long as you can write it as a legitimate AD query (and you can test the results first, to make sure you're targeting what you're intending to target) ...
Here's a few things that you may want to read up on to help you out with the LDAP syntax side of things:
So if you want to - say - target EVERYONE except "bob", your query could look like so (added a few spaces to try & make it easier to read):
( &(cn=*) (! (cn=Bob)) )
... pretty straight forward ... and you can keep adding clauses.
It's just an LDAP query.